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In 2016, 1% of the population of Brazilian workers with higher purchasing power earned 36.3 times more than the 50% who earn the lowest salaries

Despite the evolution over the last decades, Brazil still presents a picture of extreme inequality . In 2016, 1% of the population of Brazilian workers with higher purchasing power earned 36.3 times more than the 50% who earn the lowest salaries. The data from the National Survey by Sample of Continuous Households ( PNAD ) were released on Wednesday by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ( IBGE ).

Despite the evolution over the last decades, Brazil still presents a picture of extreme inequality . In 2016, 1% of the population of Brazilian workers with higher purchasing power earned 36.3 times more than the 50% who earn the lowest salaries. The data from the National Survey by Sample of Continuous Households ( PNAD ) were released on Wednesday by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics ( IBGE ).

In the share of the 1% most paid, formed by only 889,000 people, the average monthly labor income was 27,085 reais. The average income of the 50% that received the worst salaries was only 747 reais, below the minimum wage. If we consider the 5% of Brazilians with lower salaries, the average income was a measly 73 reais a month. According to the IBGE, 4.445 million workers are in this condition.

“Brazil is one of the countries where inequality is among the largest in the world, it is one of the great problems. No country will grow based on such an unequal platform, “said Cimar Azeredo, IBGE’s Labor and Income Coordinator.

Per capita income

When we look at per capita income data from all sources, and not only labor income – in this calculation, disposable income is divided by all residents of the household, including those who do not work – the situation is even more serious. The average monthly income per capita of the Brazilian 5% with lower purchasing power was only 47.00 reais in 2016. Poverty was even more acute in the North and Northeast, with 38.00 Reais and 33.00 Reais, respectively.

The average real household income per capita was 1,242 reais, against an average income of 2,149 reais if considered only the workers. The North and Northeast regions had the lowest value: 772 reais, in both regions. The Southeast Region had the highest average income, 1,537 reais.

Gini Index

As a result, the Gini index of real monthly household income per capita was estimated at 0.549 in 2016, worse than the Gini based on labor income, at 0.525. The indicator measures income inequality – on a scale of 0 to 1, the higher the indicator, the worse the income distribution. In the Northeast, the Gini of the per capita household income was 0.555. In the South, it stood at 0.473.

“The more uneven the region, the higher the Gini Index. So the most unequal region is the Northeast, no doubt, as it was already being shown by PNAD, “Azeredo recalled.

Profile

Of Brazil’s total 205 million people in 2016, 124.4 million had some kind of income, 87.1 million of which were paid for their work and 49.3 million were receiving income from some other source, whether retirement and pension; rent and lease; alimony, donation and non-resident’s allowance; or other income, a category that includes unemployment insurance, government income transfer programs, savings income, among others.

In 2016, 13.9% of the population received retirement or pension; 2.4%, alimony, donation or allowance of non-resident; 1.8%, rent and lease; while 7.7% received other income.

The coming retirement or pension income was the highest on average (actual 1670), pattern observed in all regions, being highest in the Midwest (2,064 reais) and lowest in the North (real 1334). Income from rental and lease had an average value of 1,521 reais; alimony, donation and non-resident’s allowance, 516 reais; and other income, 499 reais.

The average real monthly household income per capita reached R $ 255.1 billion in 2016, but the top 10% of respondents had 43.4% of this cake, a share larger than the 80% of the population with the lowest incomes (40 , 8%). That is, only 12.4 million people earned more than 99.2 million Brazilians together.

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Countries with the largest black markets in the world

In this ranking we order the countries according to the approximate value of their black market. We also include the value of the black market with respect to GDP, since due to the large size of the great powers will always tend to come out at the top.

black marketunderground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the drug trade, prostitution (where prohibited), illegal currency transactions and human trafficking. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitutes membership in the unreported economy

The dubious honor of the first place is for the United States, although as he commented it is due in large part to the large volume of its economy, since it only represents 3.37% of its GDP . So excluding the United States and China, the three countries with a large black market, both in absolute data and as a percentage of their GDP are Mexico, Spain and Italy.

Below we present the estimated data of the black market by countries (in billions of dollars and in percentage of GDP).

No. country Black Market * GDP percentage
1 U.S 625,63 3.37%
2 China 261 2.29%
3 Mexico 126.08 11.85%
4 Spain 124.06 9.91%
5 Italy 111.05 5,99%
6 Japan 108.3 2.29%
7 Canada 77.83 5.08%
8 India 68.59 3.05%
9 Reino Unido 61,96 2.34%
10 Russia 49.04 3.87%
11 Germany 39.67 1.14%
12 South Korea 26.2 1.87%
13 Indonesia 23,05 2.45%
14 Philippines 17,27 6.35%
15 Turkey 17,16 2.33%
16 Brazil 17 0.96%
17 Australia 14.62 1.16%
18 Colombia 14.5 3.80%
19 Venezuela 14,19 3.79%
20 Thailand 13.95 3.60%
21 Paraguay 13 45.88%
22 Morocco 12.7 12.08%
23 Iran 10.64 2.91%
24 Guatemala 10.11 18.59%
25 Saudi Arabia 10.1 1.58%
26 France 9.85 0.40%
27 Nigeria 8.4 2.93%
28 Afghanistan 7.3 35.21%
29 Israel 7.05 2.42%
30 Peru 6.7 3.24%
31 Pakistan 6.53 2.74%
32 Irak 5,17 2.25%
33 Bulgaria 4.74 8.94%
34 Hungary 4.6 3.47%
35 Switzerland 4.5 0.68%
36 Ucrania 4.31 2.45%
37 South Africa 3.93 1.12%
38 Greece 3.85 1.59%
39 Egypt 3.79 1.40%
40 Malaysia 2.99 0.96%
41 Ireland 2.98 1.37%
42 Taiwan 2,6 0.53%
43 North Korea 2.24 18.09%
44 Burma 1.7 2.62%
45 Rumania 1.53 0.81%
46 Kuwait 1.41 0.76%
47 United Arab Emirates 1.1 0.28%
48 Argentina 1.06 0.22%
49 Zimbabwe 1 7,72%
50 Kenya 0.945 2.10%
Source: havocscope.com* Data in billions of dollars

Resultado de imagen de countries black market

 





EURO A DOLLAR FORECAST FOR 2018, 2019

Month Open Min Max Fech. M% Total%
2018
January 1.170 1,143-1,177 1.160 -0.9% -2,5%
Feb 1.160 1.160-1.203 1,185 2.2% -0.4%
March 1,185 1,150-1,186 1,168 -1.4% -1.8%
April 1,168 1,141-1,175 1,158 -0.9% -2.7%
May 1,158 1,149-1,183 1,166 0.7% -2.0%
Jun 1,166 1,166-1,219 1,201 3.0% 0.9%
Jul 1,201 1,201-1,239 1,221 1.7% 2.6%
Aug 1,221 1,221-1,277 1,258 3.0% 5.7%
September 1,258 1,258-1,305 1,286 2.2% 8.1%
October 1,286 1,278-1,316 1,297 0.9% 9.0%
November 1,297 1,251-1,297 1.270 -2,1% 6.7%
December 1.270 1.270-1.324 1.304 2.7% 9.6%
2019
January 1.304 1,276-1,314 1.295 -0.7% 8.8%
Feb 1.295 1,237-1,295 1,256 -3.0% 5.5%
March 1,256 1.209-1.256 1,227 -2,3% 3.1%
April 1,227 1.217-1.255 1.236 0.7% 3.9%
May 1.236 1.215-1.253 1.234 -0.2% 3.7%
Jun 1.234 1,222-1,260 1,241 0.6% 4.3%
Jul 1,241 1.219-1.257 1.238 -0.2% 4.0%
Aug 1.238 1,185-1,238 1,203 -2.8% 1.1%
September 1,203 1,193-1,229 1.211 0.7% 1.8%
October 1.211 1.211-1.266 1,247 3.0% 4.8%
November 1,247 1.232-1.270 1,251 0.3% 5.1%
December 1,251 1,229-1,267 1,248 -0.2% 4.9%

Euro dollar image result

The euro represents an alternative to the US dollar for several reasons:

Economic reasons : The euro began trading on January 4, 1999 for the price of US $ 1.1789. On January 27, 2000, he lost parity with the currency for the first time in its history. On July 15, 2008, the euro reached a USD 1.5990 exchange rate, the highest value since its introduction. On the other hand, in December 2006 it displaced the dollar as the currency most used for payment in cash. That month, about 614 billion euros circulated around the world, while dollars totaled 588 billion euros. In addition, we must bear in mind that the euro is the currency of the world’s leading economic power and that the European economy is healthier than the US, which makes the currency safer and stronger than the US dollar. However, after the rejection of the European Constitution by the referendum in France and the Netherlands, and therefore the uncertainty generated in relation to the future of the Union, the euro decelerated and depreciated (despite being above the dollar); state from which it was subsequently recovered. In recent years, due to the European sovereign debt crisis, there have been ups and downs in its change against the dollar.

Political reasons : Some states favor the use of the euro, harming the dollar, because they do not agree with the policy the United States takes on issues such as the international economy or diplomacy, and in many cases does not mean being pro-European, but rather have an anti-American stance. Some examples are Iran, Cuba, Iraq or North Korea.





The euro represents an alternative to the US dollar for several reasons

Economic reasons : The euro began trading on January 4, 1999 for the price of US $ 1.1789. On January 27, 2000, he lost parity with the currency for the first time in its history. On July 15, 2008, the euro reached a USD 1.5990 exchange rate, the highest value since its introduction. On the other hand, in December 2006 it displaced the dollar as the currency most used for payment in cash. That month, about 614 billion euros circulated around the world, while dollars totaled 588 billion euros. In addition, we must bear in mind that the euro is the currency of the world’s leading economic power and that the European economy is healthier than the US, which makes the currency safer and stronger than the US dollar. However, after the rejection of the European Constitution by the referendum in France and the Netherlands, and therefore the uncertainty generated in relation to the future of the Union, the euro decelerated and depreciated (despite being above the dollar); state from which it was subsequently recovered. In recent years, due to the European sovereign debt crisis, there have been ups and downs in its change against the dollar.

Euro dollar image result

Political reasons : Some states favor the use of the euro, harming the dollar, because they do not agree with the policy the United States takes on issues such as the international economy or diplomacy, and in many cases does not mean being pro-European, but rather have an anti-American stance. Some examples are Iran, Cuba, Iraq or North Korea.